(01) HEPI-HEA Student Academic Experience Survey (2015)
(02) European Commission. ECTS Users’ Guide (2015). p77 [Online]
(03) Crawford & Jin, (April 2014) Institute of Fiscal Studies, IFS Report R93
(04) UK Ministry of Justice - Open Justice. How sentencing and rehabilitation works 09/10/2015 [Online]
Available from: http://open.justice.gov.uk/how-it-works/sentencing-and-rehabilitation/#cc [Accessed: 5th Dec 2015].
(05) UK Ministry of Justice - Open Justice. Sentences by offence type 09/10/2015 [Online]
Available from: http://open.justice.gov.uk/sentencing/ [Accessed: 5th Dec 2015].
(06) UK Ministry of Justice - Criminal Justice Statistics Quarterly Update to September 2012 [Online]
Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/220090/criminal-justice-stats-sept-2012.pdf [Accessed: 5th Dec 2015].
(07) UK Ministry of Justice and The Rt Hon Mike Penning MP. Unlimited fines for serious offences. 12/03/2015. [Online]
Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/unlimited-fines-for-serious-offences [Accessed: 5th Dec 2015].
(08) Van Der Vleuten et al., (2000), The need for evidence in education. Medical Teacher. 22(3), 246-250, DOI: 10.1080/01421590050006205
(09) Philip Davies, (1999), What is Evidence-based Education? British Journal of Educational Studies. 47(2), DOI: 10.1111/1467-8527.00106
(10) Charles Griffith, (2000), Evidenced-based educational practice: the case for faculty development in teaching. The American Journal of Medicine. 109(9), 749–752, DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9343(00)00665-3
(11) David Hargreaves, (1997), In Defence of Research for Evidence-based Teaching: a rejoinder to Martyn Hammersley. British Educational Research Journal. 23(4), 405-419, DOI: 10.1080/0141192970230402
(12) Robert Slavin, (2004), Education Research Can and Must Address “What Works” Questions. Educational Researcher. 33(1), 27-28, DOI: 10.3102/0013189X033001027
(13) Hillage et al., (1998), Institute for Employment Studies - Research Report No 74. Excellence in Research on Schools.
(14) Kerry Hempenstalla, (2006), What does evidence-based practice in education mean? Australian Journal of Learning Disabilities. 11(2), 83-92, DOI: 10.1080/19404150609546811
(15) Roksa & Arum, (2011), The State of Undergraduate Learning. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning. 43(2), 35-38
(16) Australian Society for Evidence Based Teaching - Turning research into practical advice [Online]
Available from: http://www.evidencebasedteaching.org.au/ [Accessed: 5th Dec 2015].
(17) Pascarella et al., (2011), How Robust Are the Findings of Academically Adrift?. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning. 43(3), 20-24
(18) OECD (2013), “Educational attainment”, in OECD Factbook 2013: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/factbook-2013-77-en
(19) OECD Skills Surveys - About the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). [Online]
Available from: http://www.oecd.org/site/piaac/surveyofadultskills.htm [Accessed: 6th Dec 2015].
(20) OECD (2014), OECD Factbook 2014: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, OECD Publishing, p189 & 195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/factbook-2014-en
(21) OECD Skills Surveys - PIAAC Data Explorer, 2012.
(22) OECD (2010), “Education expenditure”, in OECD Factbook 2010: Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/factbook-2010-78-en
(23) OECD (2012), Education at a Glance 2012: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing.
(24) OECD (2016), Education spending (indicator). doi: 10.1787/ca274bac-en (Accessed on 11 January 2016), Available from: https://data.oecd.org/eduresource/education-spending.htm
(25) Frith & Dolan (1996), Cognitive Brain Research, 5(1–2), 175–181, DOI: 10.1016/S0926-6410(96)00054-7
(26) Roediger & Karpicke, (2006), Test-Enhanced Learning - Taking Memory Tests Improves Long-Term Retention. Psychological Science. 17(3), 249-255
(27) Karpicke & Blunt, (2011), Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping. Science. 331(6018), 772-775
(28) Mcdaniel, Roediger & Mcdermott, (2007), Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 14(2), 200-206
(29) Pastotter & Bauml, (2014), Retrieval practice enhances new learning: the forward effect of testing. Frontiers in Psychology. 5, 286, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00286
(30) Dolmans et al., (2015), Deep and surface learning in problem-based learning: a review of the literature. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 1-26, DOI: 10.1007/s10459-015-9645-6
(31) Cindy Hmelo-Silver, (2004), Problem-Based Learning: What and How Do Students Learn? Educational Psychology Review. 16(3), 235-266
(32) Dolmans & Gijbels, (2013), Research on problem-based learning: future challenges. Medical Education. 47(2), 214–218, DOI: 10.1111/medu.12105
(33) Norman & Schmidt, (1992), The psychological basis of problem-based learning: a review of the evidence. Academic Medicine. 67(9)
(34) Vernon & Blake, (1993), Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine. 68(7)
(35) Joanna Dunlap, (2005), Problem-based learning and self-efficacy: How a capstone course prepares students for a profession. Educational Technology Research and Development. 53(1), 65-83, DOI: 10.1007/BF02504858
(36) Schmidt, (2011), The process of problem-based learning: what works and why. Medical Education. 45(8), 792–806, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04035.x
(37) Galvao et al., (2014), Problem-Based Learning in Pharmaceutical Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. The Scientific World Journal. Article ID 578382, DOI: 10.1155/2014/578382
(38) Bassir et al., (2014), Problem-Based Learning in Dental Education: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Journal of Dental Education. 78(1), 98-109
(39) Clare Onyon, (2012), Problem-based learning: a review of the educational and psychological theory. The Clinical Teacher. 9(1), 22–26, DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-498X.2011.00501.x
(40) Chrastil & Warren (2012), Active and passive contributions to spatial learning. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 19(1), 1-23, DOI: 10.3758/s13423-011-0182-x
(41) Ying Cui, (2013), An Empirical Study of Learning Outcomes Based on Active Versus Passive Teaching Styles. International Journal of Education and Management Engineering. 1, 39-43, DOI: 10.5815/ijeme.2013.01.07
(42) Alyssa & Karin (2013), Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children. Frontiers in Psychology. 4, 567, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00567
(43) James et al., (2002), “Active” and “passive” learning of three-dimensional object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers. 34(3), 383-390, DOI: 10.3758/BF03195466
(44) Peruch & Wilson, (2004), Active versus passive learning and testing in a complex outside built environment. Cognitive Processing. 5(4), 218-227, DOI: 10.1007/s10339-004-0027-x
(45) Benware & Deci, (1984), Quality of Learning With an Active Versus Passive Motivational Set. American Educational Research Journal. 21(4), 755-765, DOI: 10.3102/00028312021004755
(46) Beets et al., (2012), Active versus Passive Training of a Complex Bimanual Task: Is Prescriptive Proprioceptive Information Sufficient for Inducing Motor Learning?. PLoS ONE. 7(5): e37687. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037687
(47) Minhas et al., (2012), The effects of passive and active learning on student preference and performance in an undergraduate basic science course. Anatomical Sciences Education. 5(4), 200–207, DOI: 10.1002/ase.1274
(48) Bunce at al., (2010), How Long Can Students Pay Attention in Class? A Study of Student Attention Decline Using Clickers. Journal of Chemical Educaction. 87(12), 1438–1443, DOI: 10.1021/ed100409p
(49) Johnstone & Percival, (1976), Attention Breaks in Lectures. Education in Chemistry. 13(2), 49-50
(50) Stuart & Rutherford (1978), Medical student concentration during lectures. Lancet. 2(8088), 514-516
(51) Burns, R. A. (1985), Information Impact and Factors Affecting Recall. Paper presented at the Annual National Conference on Teaching Excellence and Conference of Administrators (7th, Austin, TX, May 22-25, 1985). ERIC Number: ED258639
(52) Haidet et al., (2004), A Controlled Trial of Active Versus Passive Learning Strategies in a Large Group Setting. Advances in Health Sciences Education. 9(1), 15-27, DOI: 10.1023/B:AHSE.0000012213.62043.45
(53) James Mathewson, (1999), Visual-spatial thinking: An aspect of science overlooked by educators. Science Education. 83(1), 33-54
(54) TED (Feb 2012), Joshua Foer: Feats of memory anyone can do
(55) TEDxGoteborg (2012) Idriz Zogaj: How to become a memory master
(56) Simon Reinhard, New World Record in Speed Cards: 20.438 sec
(57) Larry Squire (2011), Psychology: The art of remembering. Nature. 472(7341), 33–34, DOI: 10.1038/472033a
(58) Fielder & Carey, (2010), Prevalence and Characteristics of Sexual Hookups Among First-Semester Female College Students. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy. 36(4), 346–359, DOI: 10.1080/0092623X.2010.488118
(59) Kenney et al., (2013), First-Year college women's motivations for hooking up: A mixed-methods examination of normative peer perceptions and personal hookup participation. International Journal of Sex Health. 25(3), 212–224, DOI: 10.1080/19317611.2013.786010
(60) Garcia et al., (2012), Sexual Hookup Culture: A Review. Review of General Psychology. 16(2), 161–176, DOI: 10.1037/a0027911
(61) Wellings et al., (2006), Sexual behaviour in context: a global perspective. The Lancet. 368(9548), 1706–1728, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69479-8
(62) Chanakira et al., (2014), Factors perceived to influence risky sexual behaviours among university students in the United Kingdom: a qualitative telephone interview study. BMC Public Health. 14:1055, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1055
(63) Rivera L., 2011, Ivies, extracurriculars, and exclusion: Elite employers’ use of educational credentials. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility. 29(1), 71–90
(64) Hart Research Associates (2015), on behalf of the Association of American Colleges & Universities (AACU). Falling Short? College Learning and Career Success.
(65) Goldacre et al., (2003), Preregistration house officers' views on whether their experience at medical school prepared them well for their jobs: national questionnaire survey. BMJ. 326(7397), 1011, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.326.7397.1011
(66) Matheson & Matheson, (2009), How well prepared are medical students for their first year as doctors? The views of consultants and specialist registrars in two teaching hospitals. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 85(1009), 582-589, DOI: 10.1136/pgmj.2008.071639
(67) Wall et al., (2006), From undergraduate medical education to pre-registration house officer year: how prepared are students? Medical Teacher.28(5), 435-439, DOI: 10.1080/01421590600625171
(68) Evans et al., (2004), The effect of an extended hospital induction on perceived confidence and assessed clinical skills of newly qualified pre-registration house officers. Medical Education. 38(9), 998–1001, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01908.x
(69) Windish et al., (2004), Do Clerkship Directors Think Medical Students Are Prepared for the Clerkship Years? Academic Medicine. 79(1), 56-61
(70) Hilmer et al., (2009), Do medical courses adequately prepare interns for safe and effective prescribing in New South Wales public hospitals? Internal Medicine Journal. 39(7), 428–434, DOI: 10.1111/j.1445-5994.2009.01942.x
(71) Langdale et al., (2003), Preparing Graduates for the First Year of Residency: Are Medical Schools Meeting the Need? Academic Medicine. 78(1), 39–44
(72) ONS, Graduates in the UK Labour Market 2013, Labour Force Survey.
(73) Graeme Paton, (17/01/2014), Graduates earning less than those on apprenticeships. The Telegraph.
(74) EveningStandard (12/08/2013), Don’t waste time and money on useless degrees, students told.
(75) UK labour market insights – the entry-level dilemma, A totaljobs.com report prepared by IPPR, November 2014
(76) Katie Morley, (04/03/2014), Are university degrees an expensive mistake? Data obtained from the IFS. The Guardian.
(77) High Fliers Research Limited. The Graduate Market in 2014 - Annual review of graduate vacancies & starting salaries at Britain’s leading employers.
(78) Cribb et al., Living standards, poverty and inequality in the UK: 2012, IFS Commentary C124, ISBN: 978-1-903274-90-3
(79) The World Bank - Development Research Group, World Databank: World Development Indicators, GINI index (World Bank estimate)
(80) OECD (2016), Adult education level (indicator). doi: 10.1787/36bce3fe-en (Accessed on 11 January 2016)
(81) Istvan GyorgyToth (Sept 2013), Gini Policy Paper 3, Time series and cross country variation of income inequalities in Europe on the medium run: are inequality structures converging in the past three decades? p23.
(82) Ian Townsend (2009), UK income inequality (with international comparisons). Commons Briefing papers SN03870.
(83) "CLA+ National Results, 2013-14". Council for Aid to Education. p8.
(84) Wheater & Worth (Dec 2014), BIS Research paper Number 182 - Young Adults’ Skills Gain in the International Survey of Adult Skills 2012, UK Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
(85) Paul Bolton (5/10/2015), Briefing Paper Number 917 - Tuition Fees Statistics, House of Commons Library.
(86) Taylor et al., (15/05/2011), Is College Worth It? - College Presidents, Public Assess, Value, Quality and Mission of Higher Education. Pew Research Centre.
(87) BBC News (09/03/2010), Call to scrap 50% university student target.
(88) Educational Attainment - Five Key Data Releases From the U.S. Census Bureau
(89) EHRC (2015), Largest ever review reveals ‘winners and losers’ in progress towards equality in Great Britain. Highlights from "Is Britain Fairer?"
(90) EHRC (2015), Is Britain Fairer? - The state of equality and human rights 2015
(91) Fry et al., (2011), The Rising Age Gap in Economic Well-Being - The Old Prosper Relative to the Young. Pew Research Centre.
(92) Illing et al., (2013), Perceptions of UK medical graduates’ preparedness for practice: A multi-centre qualitative study reflecting the importance of learning on the job. BMC Medical Education. 13(34), DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-13-34
(93) Cook et al., (2008), Internet-Based Learning in the Health Professions - A Meta-analysis. JAMA. 300(10), 1181-1196, DOI: 10.1001/jama.300.10.1181
(94) Piccoli et al., (2001), Web-Based Virtual Learning Environments: A Research Framework and a Preliminary Assessment of Effectiveness in Basic IT Skills Training. MIS Quarterly. 25(4), 401-426, DOI: 10.2307/3250989
(95) Means et al., (2013), The Effectiveness of Online and Blended Learning: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature. Teachers College Record. 115(3)
(96) Glance et al., (2013), The pedagogical foundations of massive open online courses. First Monday. 18(5), DOI: 10.5210/fm.v18i5.4350
(97) Shea & Bidjerano, (2014), Does online learning impede degree completion? A national study of community college students. Computers & Education. 75, 103–111, DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.02.009
(98) Bloom et al. (2015). Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 130(1), 165-218, DOI: 10.1093/qje/qju032
(99) Hill et al., (2003), Does it matter where you work? A comparison of how three work venues (traditional office, virtual office, and home office) influence aspects of work and personal/family life. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 63(2), 220–241, DOI: 10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00042-3
(100) Lehmann et al., (2014), Youth apprenticeships in Canada: on their inferior status despite skilled labour shortages. Journal of Vocational Education & Training. 66(4), 572-589, DOI:10.1080/13636820.2014.958868
(101) Lehmann et al., (2015), ‘Go west young man!’ Youth apprenticeship and opportunity structures in two Canadian provinces. Journal of Education and Work. 28(1), 44-65, DOI:10.1080/13639080.2013.802834
(102) Muellera & Schwerib (2015), How specific is apprenticeship training? Evidence from inter-firm and occupational mobility after graduation. Oxford Economic Papers. 67(4), 1057-1077, DOI: 10.1093/oep/gpv040
(103) Graeme Paton, (17/09/2014), For top universities, students come second - Universities are increasingly complex, multibillion-pound organisations in which teaching comes a distant second on the priority list. The Telepgraph.
(104) Bartimote-Aufflick et al., (2015), The study, evaluation, and improvement of university student self-efficacy. Studies in Higher Education. DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2014.999319
(105) Richardson et al., (2012), Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin. 138(2), 353-387, DOI: 10.1037/a0026838.
(106) Lee Parker, (2002), It’s been a pleasure doing business with you: a strategic analysis and critique of university change management. Critical Perspectives on Accounting. 13(5–6), 603–619, DOI: 10.1006/cpac.2002.0561