Wednesday, 24 February 2016

Paedophilia - Stigma Deaf to Reason

Perhaps no topic is enveloped in as much stigma as that of paedophilia. The extreme sentiments that this subject elicits are not matched by a similar measure of reason however. While the stated aim of those who stigmatise paedophilia is to protect children, approaches that seek to do so without a reasoned and evidentiary basis are, at best, likely to be ineffective, and at worst, counter-productive. Readers of this essay should leave their emotions but not their conscience, nor their intellect, at the door.

01) Defining Paedophilia
02) Requirements of Justice
        Double Standards (DS)
03) DS - Predation
04) DS - Grooming
05) DS - Referencing Paedophilia
06) Prejudiced Assumptions
07) Case study: Frolander
        Age of Consent (AoC)
08) AoC versus under-age Sex
09) AoC - The lesser of two evils
10) AoC - Almost Arbitrary
11) Evolutionary Predisposition
12) Pre-teen sexual experiences
13) Adult-adolescent relationships
14) Maintaining Children's Innocence
15) Pregnancy and STIs
16) Recidivism
17) Invasion of Privacy
18) Position Statement
19) Quick Rebuttals
20) Conclusion
21) Recommended Further Reading/Viewing
22) References

01) Defining Paedophilia
A good place to start in any discussion is with the defining of terms. As described in one of the top-ranked medical journals, "pedophilia is a clinical diagnosis usually made by a psychiatrist or psychologist. It is not a criminal or legal term... a pedophile is an individual who fantasizes about, is sexually aroused by, or experiences sexual urges toward prepubescent children (generally <13 years) for a period of at least 6 months" (01).

Given that those most vocal critics of paedophilia frequently ascribe the term to those who have had some form of sexual contact with a teenager (>13), we can already see how regularly the term is misused. By far the most egregious misnomer however is the conflation of "paedophilia" with "child molestation". In reality, "child molestation is not a medical diagnosis and is not necessarily a term synonymous with pedophilia" (01).

02) Requirements of Justice
In order to implement any form of justice, consistently applied requirements must be met. Without this, condemnations or vindications are arbitrary. The first requirement of justice is that a person may only be found guilty of any given transgression if the evidence supports such a conclusion. It is from this that the principle of "innocent until proven guilty" is derived and it places the burden of proof with the accusers.

The second requirement of justice is that the severity of the punishment fit that of the crime. The severity of the punishment would require consideration not only of the actions perpetrated but ideally of the intent motivating those actions, which is why we distinguish manslaughter from murder, for example. It is with these principles in mind that we must judge all alleged misdeeds, regardless of stigma. A failed implementation of justice is itself an injustice.

03) Double Standards - Predation
Many people classify paedophiles as "predatory" by default, irrespective of whether they've had any sexual contact with children, whether they plan to achieve this by coercion/manipulation, or whether they intend to do so at all. These same people are among the most vocal supporters of "hunting" paedophiles. TV programs such as "To Catch a Predator" or "Paedophile hunters" epitomise this ironic and hypocritical relationship. Though such programs may well feature some genuine child sex offenders, this is not necessarily the case for all who are entrapped. Similarly, programs exposing child sex rings no more encapsulate paedophilia than those on adult sex trafficking encapsulate heterosexual teleiophilia.

Even among those who do have sexual contact with pre-pubescents, let alone post-pubescent minors, this in and of itself is no guarantee of a predatory mindset whatsoever. Age alone is insufficient to gauge intent and as previously described, justice requires that convictions are supported by actual evidence, rather than prejudicial assumptions. Two minors caught fondling each other would not be presupposed to possess predatory dispositions. Ageism is not evidence. If merely pursuing somebody sexually denotes predatory intent then almost all humans are sexual predators.

04) Double Standards - Grooming
In recent decades, "grooming" has emerged into the parlance of criminology and legislation, suggesting that it must represent some unique form of wrongdoing, existing independently of any other offence. Colloquially, it refers to attempts to manipulate and/or coerce. This crime is defined in Illinois as being when an individual "knowingly uses a... device capable of electronic data storage or transmission to... attempt to seduce, solicit, lure, or entice, a child... to commit any sex offense" (02). The UK's Crown Prosecution Service defines grooming legislation as making it "a crime to befriend a child on the Internet or by other means and meet or intend to meet the child with the intention of abusing them" (03). "Abusing them" here obviously refers to any sexual contact. The term "grooming" is, in actuality, therefore indistinguishable from any activity that is routinely engaged in as part of adult courtship. "Grooming" specifies no malintent or wrongdoing of any kind that is independent from expressing the desire for sexual/romantic interaction with a minor.

05) Double Standards - Referencing Paedophilia
Imagine daily newspaper headlines referring to "heterosexual predators", police having "apprehended a heterosexual" or a TV program "heterosexual hunters". The irrelevance of the heterosexuality of any man that sexually assaults a women is automatically recognised such that the aforementioned headlines would seem strange indeed. The paedophilia of any perpetrator of sexual assault against children is similarly irrelevant, yet ignorance of this fact is conditioned into any who read the news. This exemplifies one area where public discourse may be counter-productive to child-protection; what better way to erode an individual's empathy than to promote a culture in which they are condemned by default?

Note: A more accurate comparison than "heterosexuality" would entail references to "teleiophiles", though as the general public's incomprehension of chronophilias is not limited to paedophilia, such an example would not enhance clarity.

06) Prejudiced Assumptions
The average dogmatist will make the following assumptions concerning any case of child molestation:
1) The sexual contact was forced, likely against vocal objection, or, at the very least, the victim was "groomed".
2) The perpetrator was indifferent or sadistically predisposed towards the well-being of their victim.
3) The interaction consisted of vaginal, anal and/or oral penetration of the victim.
4) The perpetrator will seek to re-offend against any and all other minors if ever given the opportunity.
None of these four possibilities are essentially the case in virtue of the age of the victim alone. Each must be substantiated independently of that in order to justly convict anybody. If convictions are not based upon the first two of these factors then it is difficult to conceive of what ethical foundation they may possess.

07) Case Study: Raymond Frolander
Raymond Frolander, before and after being assaulted
His face a testament to the brutality of those who condemn paedophiles, Raymond Frolander made headlines when, at age 18, he was beaten unconscious by the father of his 11 year old victim. In this case, he did have sexual contact with the minor and the father of the victim was widely praised for his violent response, especially by those who make the previously described "prejudiced assumptions". The media generally referred to the crime as "rape" and claimed or implied that it occurred repeatedly over a 3 year period.

CNN however describes how "according to the charging affidavit, the 11-year-old victim told authorities that Frolander had performed oral sex on him and instructed the boy to fondle him" (04). Oral sex is a pleasure-giving activity and certainly isn't "rape" when the victim is the insertive partner. It may be sexual assault but does not suggest indifference to the victim. There appears to be no publicly-available evidence that Frolander used any form of coercion or force to achieve his victim's acquiescence. Frolander did inform his victim that "terrible things would happen" if he revealed their interaction (05). This was an accurate statement... terrible things evidently did happen, to Frolander, and such a statement would be true for any forbidden relationship. This is not to say that the relationship was mutual, consensual or legitimate but simply that the media's portrayal of the victim as being intimidated into silence is far from the only interpretation of the available evidence.

The Father, who is himself an ex-convict
An interview with the victim's mother on HLN's Dr Drew brought the following points to light:
Dr Drew: "and so this business of the abuse possibly lasting across 3 years, that seems viable does it not?"
Mother of victim: "That actually is not true either. This wasn't something that had been continually going on... Raymond himself was also abused before, as a child" (06).
When Frolander was caught at age 18, it was revealed by the victim that a similar incident had occurred 3 years prior, when Frolander himself was a minor. The victim's perspective of Frolander remains unknown, though we know he intervened to stop his father stabbing the unconscious 18 year old. Multiple studies have confirmed that for victims of molestation, "having been a victim was a strong predictor of becoming a perpetrator" (16, 17). Frolander clearly falls into this category.

Granting that the AoC should be above 11, justice still requires that the magnitude of Frolander's punishment match that of the crime. Imagine receiving an ultimatum of either being beaten as badly as Frolander was or having somebody fellate you in private. Which would you choose? For many people, their answer would reveal that even just the beating Frolander received surpassed the severity of what he inflicted.

The fact that Frolander was an adult (18) and his victim under the age of 12 (11) meant that Frolander would receive the maximum sentence of life imprisonment. To prevent this, he took a plea deal and received a 25 year sentence. Frolander will almost undoubtedly be repeatedly forcefully anally and orally raped in prison, given his size, age and the nature of his crime. Anal rape and, to some extent oral rape, is physically excruciating. It is difficult to comprehend how terrified anybody would be to be caged with violent criminals, who would do that to them for decades. "Male victims may be marked as “punks” and forced to endure years of sexual slavery and torture" (34).

Despite there being no apparent evidence of Frolander displaying malicious intent, using violence, or of the extent to and ways in which Frolander's victim felt victimised, his life is utterly destroyed. To equate Frolander's crime with violent anal rape does a great disservice to all past and future victims of the latter. While we can't know for certain how much Frolander will suffer, to even place him at risk of this is wildly disproportionate to any crime he is purported to have committed.

This case study is used, in particular, to demonstrate the excessive punishments often meted out to alleged child sex offenders and the twisting of the truth, by the sensationalist media and the general public, in order to shoehorn nuanced situations into the simplistic and emotionally convenient caricatures of "sadistic rapist" and "rape victim". People are largely indifferent to the punishment suffered by those branded child sex offenders and are therefore indifferent to justice.

08) AoC versus under-age Sex
If under-age sex is a measure of predation or confirmation of grooming then vast swathes of the general populations of most nations are child sex predators. In the UK, for example, where the age of consent (AoC) is 16, over a third of 15 year olds (37.6%) have had sex (07). This and the statistics tabulated, right, refer to penetrative intercourse. Were any form of sexual contact included, the figure would be markedly higher. Contrary to the aforementioned prejudiced assumption, "typically, pedophiles engage in fondling and genital manipulation more than intercourse" (01). In the US, the AoC varies from 16-18, with 18 being the AoC in about 10 states. The US's CDC reports that "mean age at first intercourse for men aged 15-44 [is] 16.8 years" (08), meaning that approximately 50% of men first copulate prior to this age, assuming a normal (Gaussian) distribution. This adds yet another layer to the increasingly apparent hypocrisy of those who treat the AoC as an absolute moral boundary.

09) AoC - The lesser of two evils
AoC laws must be recognised as the lesser of two evils, rather than simply as intrinsically just. This is the case because they will inevitably criminalise some relationships that are no less mutual, genuine and legitimate than any other. AoC laws criminalise arbitrarily based upon age disparities, rather than any truly accurate measure of underhandedness. They do however add an extra degree of protection for young people and, if they are beneficial, deciding what age to set them at should reflect a balance of these two considerations. Concomitantly, the punishment for breaking an AoC law must be heavily tempered by the mutuality and benignity of the relationship, including to the point of absolution. For example, it is absurd that Lonny Rivera was placed on the sex offenders register for life for "abusing" the women that he has now been married to for over two decades, when he was 19 and she was 17 (12).

10) AoC - Almost Arbitrary
The AoC varies across the world and is a relatively modern phenomenon. It is 14 in many countries, for example, such as Germany, Italy, China, Japan and Austria, 15 in a number of others, such as Sweden, France and Denmark and can vary anywhere from no AoC, to 18, or to the time of marriage. Historically, people have been marrying and copulating at far younger ages than are now considered acceptable, such as in England, where "the age of consent was 12 years for 600 years" (25). In late medieval English society, for example, aristocratic women "married while young, between thirteen and eighteen" (19). Throughout almost all of human history, it has been accepted that adults are attracted to adolescents and vice versa, pretending otherwise is a disingenuous modern idiosyncrasy.

11) Evolutionary Predisposition
Relationships involving minors, though not prepubescents, are likely to be evolutionarily optimal and ephebophilia is therefore a trait specifically selected for. A study of marriages in 17th-19th century Finland "found that men maximized their fitness by marrying women approximately 15 years younger and vice versa" (20). This has no definitive bearing upon the morality of such relationships but does indicate that ephebophilia should be a common and spontaneously arising trait, rather than something nefariously concocted in the minds of "deviants", "perverts" or "predators".

12) Pre-teen sexual experiences
While this essay does not advocate a pre-pubescent AoC, it should be noted that a great many pre-teens do engage in consensual sexual interactions. A study of >1000 graduates retrospectively enquiring about their childhood sexual encounters found that "approximately 42% of the subjects reported a childhood [pre-teen] sexual encounter with another child" (09). In a study of 300 female undergraduates, 85% "described a childhood sexual game experience" and among these, "eighty-four percent were viewed as not involving any persuasion or coercion at all" (10). In a further study of pre-teen sexual experiences, "82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child", while only "thirteen percent reported coercive experiences". The study concluded that "the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration" (11). A further study even describes how "most boys do not consider their prepubertal experiences with older women abusive" (24).

13) Adult-adolescent relationships
Among males, their adolescent sexual relationships with adults are typically not a source of regret or disquiet. Multiple reviews have found that "self-reported reactions to and effects from [child sexual abuse] indicated that negative effects were neither pervasive nor typically intense", with 66% of males reflecting positively or neutrally on their sexual relationships with adults when they were minors (21-22). A similar trend is evident for age-discrepant sexual relations (ADSRs) between gay or bisexual male adolescents and adult men, where reactions "were predominantly positive, and most ADSRs were willingly engaged in. Younger adolescents were just as willing and reacted at least as positively as older adolescents" (23).

14) Maintaining Children's Innocence
Society has some blame to bare for molestations as it maintains children in a state of ignorance under the guise of protecting their "innocence". Having "received inadequate sex education" was associated with higher rates of sexual abuse in a nationally representative US study (13). Only ignorance is protected by denying children facts. Children are taught to look both ways when crossing the road because there is a potential danger there. Fortunately, prudish embarrassment doesn't inhibit the protection of children from that particular danger, nor does unbridled hatred of crossing the road (paedophiles) interfere with addressing the actual problem of being run over (child molestation). The combination of ignorance and stigma that deliberate censorship engenders leaves children far more vulnerable to abuse in that it diminishes their capacity to decline unwanted sexual advances and to psychologically process and report molestation. Current societal attitudes therefore likely exacerbate both the sequelae and the prevalence of molestations.

15) Pregnancy and STIs
Thorough sex education and contraceptive availability appear to be far more seminal influences on teen pregnancy and STI rates than AoC. For example, "the most important determinant of declining fertility in developing countries is contraceptive use, which explains 92% of the variation in fertility among 50 countries" (29). As charted below, AoC laws (green line) additionally exhibit no clear correlation with teen pregnancy/birth rates (blue bars) (30).

The US would be in the top-5 for births by 15-17 year olds (31) and has the highest pregnancy rates for 15-19 year olds among all developed nations, despite its relatively high AoC laws (32). Likewise, Malta, with its AoC of 18, is above the EU28 average (black bar), while Italy, Germany and Austria (AoC 14) are all below it.

Similarly, concerning STIs, countries in East Asia and the Pacific have an STI incidence several times lower than the rest of the world, despite China, which accounts for over two thirds of the population of these countries, having an AoC of just 14 (33). Japan, another populous nation also falling within this group, has an AoC of 13. If criminalisation of sexual contact with minors is motivated by concern for STIs or pregnancies, why do we not similarly punish any individuals that are antagonistic to the dissemination of contraceptives or sex education with decades of imprisonment?

16) Recidivism
Many vocally proclaim that paedophiles/sex offenders should simply be summarily executed on the basis that they will undoubtedly molest/reoffend, their certainty of this fact dwarfed only by the bloodlust with which they assert it. Thank goodness we have these enlightened paragons of virtue to guide us on complex ethical issues. A large-scale review found that "on average, the sexual offense recidivism rate was low (13.4%; n = 23,393)" (14), while another study found that paedophilia is "treatable in terms of developing strategies for preventing behavioral expression" (15). As previously described, "some pedophiles have not had any known sexual contact with children, and perhaps half of sex offenders against children would not meet diagnostic criteria for pedophilia" (18).

17) Invasion of Privacy
Teachers in some jurisdictions are now entitled to disregard the privacy of teens by searching their phones for explicit selfies (26). These invasions are perpetrated under the guise of nobility, while practically salivating over the salaciousness of what they secretly hope to find. Adolescents are not morally wrong to sext, though it may be inadvisable. They are occasionally betrayed by immoral people who go on to share sexually explicit images that were sent exclusively for their viewing.

In the case of a 17 year old who had sent a sexually explicit video to his 15 year old girlfriend in response to photos of the same nature sent by her, police took photos of the teens unerect penis against his will in order to secure a conviction for making/distributing child pornography... of himself. Police next obtained a court order to give the teen a medically induced erection so that they could take photos to be compared to the video (27). This is just one example of collateral damage in the puritanical witch-hunt for anybody involved with adolescent sexuality.

18) Position Statement
Assuming comprehensive sex education is provided, age 14 seems a reasonable AoC as this is post-pubertal and allows a couple of years for adolescents to acclimate to their desires. Many people have had sexual experiences around this age that were neither abusive nor regretted. There may be a case for having an AoC staggered by type of interaction (E.G. sexual contact at 14, penetrative sex at 16). "Consensual" post-pubescent teacher-student relationships should, at worst, result in the teacher being fired, which alone may devastate their lives. Decades of incarceration for such crimes is disproportionate and therefore unjust. Victims of (non-consensual) sexual abuse must always be protected, whether adult or child, and perpetrators should be punished as per the requirements of justice. Paedophiles should be pitied and helped, rather than persecuted and hated.

19) Quick Rebuttals
• In defence of AoC laws: The law is the law. An adult should know better than encouraging a child to break the law.
If a law is independent of what is just, why is adhering to it important? If it is just then it should be defended on that basis, rather than appealing to legalities alone.

He knew it was a crime, and did it anyway, and as such needs to be punished.
How does knowledge of a law enhance the extent to which that law is just?

The victim felt ashamed after it went public.
Such shame arises from stigma as it translates to a subconscious recognition that we may have diminished our social prestige and consequently our future mating prospects. It is via this mechanism that guilt has served a potentially useful evolutionary role within more primitive societies. Some people feel guilty after they masturbate due to the stigmatisation of this clandestine act. Stigma surrounding relationships involving minors is not innate to them but rather, a product of societal opprobrium.

There is a power imbalance in adult-minor relationships.
It is a statistical certainty that such an imbalance exists in any relationship, as no two people will be entirely equal in this respect. A "power imbalance" does not necessitate its exploitation and even when sexual/romantic manipulation occurs among adults, this is not criminalised, ergo, there is a double standard if criminalisation is justified by this criterion alone. Frequently the imbalance cited is an intellectual one, yet IQ tests are not required to legitimise relationships.

Relationships may ruin adolescents education.
Relationships and schooling are no more mutually exclusive than relationships and careers. Furthermore, the unfulfilled desire for a relationship experienced by most adolescents could well be more distracting than its fulfilment.

20) Conclusion
No sane person would choose to be a paedophile and no insane person is culpable for the manifestations of their insanity. The "manifestations" here refers to attractions, not to actions. "The tendency for the subject of paedophilia to generate strong opinions rather than facts can be problematic for offenders, practitioners, and, by implication, society more generally" (28). Stereotypes of child sex offenders are frequently totally inaccurate. For example, far from being strangers who lurk menacingly in the shadows and kidnap children into the back of vans, half of the victims of molestation <6 years old are molested by a family member, as are 42% of those aged 6-11 (01).

Society's failings, characterised by impulsive vituperation towards child molestation, rather than an evidence-based, rational response leave it significantly blameworthy for every failure to prevent another molestation. Anybody finding this offensive has just had a minute taste of how a non-molesting paedophile probably feels when presupposed to be a sexual predator, based upon their age alone, rather than any aspect of their character. Age does not define guilt. The principle of "innocent until proven guilty" applies to the magnitude of guilt as well as its qualitative attribution. The ease and rapidity with which alleged molesters are dehumanised exemplifies the true root of much, if not all, human evil.

While paedophilia and child molestation are wholly distinct, there is additionally a vast spectrum of severity of molestation and of potential mitigating factors for that crime. There is a huge chasm of difference between a violent, sadistic serial rapist, who controls and threatens his victim and somebody who develops a forbidden attraction to a minor and engages in sexual contact, always approaching their "victim" in a considerate and compassionate way, with full apparent consent. The general public are utterly blind or indifferent to this distinction and take a sadistic pleasure themselves in seeing both of the above archetypes mercilessly punished. The public therefore emulate the worst of the very same traits that they automatically assume the perpetrator to posses. Humanity does not deserve a just world when it demonstrates such animosity towards justice.

21) Recommended Further Reading/Viewing
• A well written interview with a non-offending teenage paedophile and his mother.
• My brother is a sex offender.
• Children as young as 9 placed on national sex offender registers, often for life.
• Can you sympathise? A video advocating an objective response to the problem of child molestation.
• Hard-hitting discussion to stimulate thought, rather than advance any specific conclusion.
• A full report on the use of publicly-accessible sex offenders registers, with numerous examples of consequences.

22) References

(01) Hall & Hall, 2007, A Profile of Pedophilia: Definition, Characteristics of Offenders, Recidivism, Treatment Outcomes, and Forensic Issues. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 82(4), 457-471

(02) Goldman & Associates: Chicago's Leading Criminal Law Firm. What is Grooming in Illinois? 17/07/2013. [Online - Accessed: 15th Feb 2016].

(03) CPS, Sexual Offences involving the Internet, and 'grooming'.  [Online - Accessed: 15th Feb 2016].

(04) Suzanne Presto, 19/07/2014, Dad's 911 call: I've beaten up my son's assailant. CNN.

(05) Priya Joshi, 19/07/2014, Police Chief Defends Actions of Father who Beat Son's 'Sex Attacker' Unconscious. IBTIMES.

(06) Dr. Drew staff, 21/07/2014, Mom of alleged sex abuse victim talks to Dr. Drew. HLNTV.

(07) Godeau et al., 2008, Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(1), 66-73, DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2007.8

(08) Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011-2013, National Center for Health Statistics

(09) Haugaard & Tilly, 1988, Characteristics predicting children's responses to sexual encounters with other children. Child Abuse & Neglect. 12(2), 209-218, DOI: 10.1016/0145-2134(88)90029-4

(10) Lamb & Coakley, 1993, “Normal” childhood sexual play and games: Differentiating play from abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect. 17(4), 515-526, DOI: 10.1016/0145-2134(93)90026-2

(11) Larsson & Svedin, 2002, Sexual experiences in childhood: young adults' recollections. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 31(3), 263-273

(12) Daily Mail, 24/12/2013, Man asks to be taken off sex offender list 24 years after conviction because he was 19 and later married the 17-year-old girl he was arrested for 'abusing'.

(13) D. Finkelhor, 1990, Sexual abuse in a national survey of adult men and women: Prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect. 14(1), 19-28

(14) Hanson & Bussiere, 1998, Predicting relapse: a meta-analysis of sexual offender recidivism studies.. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology. 66(2), 348-62

(15) Fagan et al., 2002, Pedophilia. JAMA. 288(19), 2458-2465, DOI: 10.1001/jama.288.19.2458

(16) Glasser et al., 2001, Cycle of child sexual abuse: links between being a victim and becoming a perpetrator. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 179(6), 482-494, DOI: 10.1192/bjp.179.6.482

(17) Bagley et al., 1994, Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males. Child Abuse & Neglect. 18(8), 683-697

(18) M.C. Seto, 2009, Pedophilia. Annual Review Clinical Psychology. 5:391-407, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.032408.153618.

(19) McSheffrey, Shannon, 2006, Marriage, Sex, and Civic Culture in late Medieval London. University of Pennsylvania Press, Page 17

(20) Helle et al., 2008, Marrying women 15 years younger maximized men's evolutionary fitness in historical Sami. Biology Letters. 4(1), 75–78, DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2007.0538

(21) Rind, Tromovitch & Bauserman, 1998, A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin. 124(1), 22-53. DOI: 10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.22

(22) Bauserman & Rind, 1997, Psychological correlates of male child and adolescent sexual experiences with adults: A review of the nonclinical literature. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 26(2), 105-142, DOI: 10.1023/A:1024581610658

(23) B. Rind, 2001, Gay and bisexual adolescent boys' sexual experiences with men: an empirical examination of psychological correlates in a nonclinical sample. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 30(4), 345-368, DOI: 10.1023/A:1010210630788

(24) Nathaniel McConaghy, 1998, Paedophilia: A review of the evidence. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 32(2), 252-265, DOI: 10.3109/00048679809062736

(25) Richard Green, 2010, Hebephilia is a Mental Disorder? Sexual Offender Treatment. 5(1)

(26) Matt Chorley, 25/11/2014, Teachers given power to delete sexting images from pupils' phones, sparking fears schools could be covering up criminality. Daily Mail.

(27) Tom Jackman, 09/07/2014, In ‘sexting’ case Manassas City police want to photograph teen in sexually explicit manner, lawyers say. Washington post.

(28) Harrison et al., 2010, Multi-Disciplinary Definitions and Understandings of ‘Paedophilia’. Social Legal Studies. 19(4), 481-496, DOI: 10.1177/0964663910369054

(29) CDC, 03/12/1999, MMWR, 48(47), 1073-1080

(30) UK Office for National Statistics (ONS), 15/10/2014, International comparisons of teenage births.

(31) Martin et al., 01/01/2015, Births: Final Data for 2013. National Vital Statistics Reports. 64(1), page 4

(32) Sedgh et al., 2015, Adolescent Pregnancy, Birth, and Abortion Rates Across Countries: Levels and Recent Trends. Journal of Adolescent Health. 56(2), 223–230, DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.09.007

(33) Kenyon et al., 2014, Classification of incidence and prevalence of certain sexually transmitted infections by world regions. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 18, 73–80, Table 1, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2013.09.014

(34) RW Dumond, 2003, Confronting America's most ignored crime problem: the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online, 31(3), 354-360

No comments:

Post a Comment